Temperatures, Volumes and Weights
Temperatures can be listed in Fahrenheit (USA, UK) or Celsius (most everywhere else). By the way: scientists indicate temperatures in degrees Kelvin.
The relationship between degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius is:
- Temperature in Fahrenheit = Temperature in Celsius * 1.8 + 32.
- Temperature in Celsius = (Temperature in Fahrenheit - 32) / 1.8.
A Celsius degree equals a Kelvin degree. The difference is that 0° Kelvin is at the absolute zero, which is minus 273° Celsius (273.15° Celsius to be slightly more precise).
Volumes are measured in fluid ounces (fl. oz.) or in liters.
A deciliter or dl = 0.1 liter, a centiliter or cl = 0.01 liter, and a milliliter or ml = 0.001 liter).
A fluid ounce is 1/16 of a liquid pint, which in turn is 1/8 of a gallon. This is where it gets tricky, because there are two "gallons".
In the USA a gallon is 3.785 l, in the UK the imperial gallon equals 4.546 l. In the US system there are 16 fluid ounces to the pint, in the UK system 20.
A (US) fl. oz. therefore is 3,785 / 8 / 16 = 29.6 ml.
An imperial fluid ounce is 1/20 of an imperial liquid pint or 1/160 of an imperial gallon, or 28.4 ml.
A pint of beer in the UK equals 4.546 / 8 = 0.568 l or 568 ml. That is 13% more than a "Grosses Bier" in Germany!
To make complicated matters even more so, in the UK there is also something called a "dry pint". A dry pint traditionally was used to measure dry ingredients by volume. A dry pint equals 551 ml.
And to add confusion to the matter, fluid ounces are usually expressed in fractions, i.e. 5 1/4 fl. oz. rather than 5.25 fl. oz.
Weights (as far as the kitchen is concerned) are measured in kilograms (kg) or in pounds (lb). 1 kg equals 1,000 grams (g). 1 lb equals 16 ounces. 1 lb equals 0.453 kg.